Not all GIS are equipped with GIS analyst capabilities. This is due to the fact that a clear scheme for carrying out such work does not exist and the organizations involved in them prefer to analyze according to their own methods and rules. In addition, views on GIS analysis techniques can change over time. The difficulty lies in the fact that for each specialized area it becomes necessary to create a separate application and often even its own processing method. This is not always possible and often expensive.
Geographic complexes are difficult to formalize. The existing mathematical apparatus is not well suited for solving geographic problems. The formulations of geographical tasks and descriptions of phenomena allow for some arbitrariness or ambiguous interpretation. Rigorous algorithms may not match the level of rigor and precision of the tasks themselves. This sometimes leads to results that do not correspond to the essence and meaningful meaning. In this regard, special attention should be paid to the visual analysis of data.
Information in a GIS can contain hidden knowledge, patterns and therefore, with appropriate analysis, can influence decision-making in various areas of human activity.
There are many ways algorithms can find hidden patterns in data, but you also shouldn’t lose sight of human capabilities. It is useful to combine the vast computational resources of modern computers with creative and flexible human thinking.
Visual data analysis is designed to involve a person in the process of finding knowledge in data. The main idea is to present large amounts of geographic and attributive data in such a form where a person could see something that is difficult to distinguish algorithmically, could immerse himself in this data, work with their visual representation, understand their essence and draw conclusions.
With the help of GIS, the user is able to evaluate: large objects and small ones, they are far away or close. The user can move around the map in real time and explore it.
Visual data analysis is especially useful when little is known about the data itself and the objectives of the study are not fully understood. Due to the fact that the user directly works with the data presented visually, he can obtain additional information that will help him to more clearly formulate the research objectives.
GIS is a good environment for introducing visual information analysis methods. This is due to the fact that most of the problems and tasks in GIS are poorly structured and poorly formalized.
Visual analysis of data in GIS can be performed in three stages:
- Quick Analysis – allows you to identify interesting objects on the map and focus on one or more of them;
- Magnification and filtering – objects identified at the previous stage are filtered out and viewed on a larger scale;
- Detail as needed – if the user needs more information, he can visualize more detailed data.
GIS IN MODERN SOCIETY
Gis and business
GIS can help all entrepreneurs to make a successful (profitable) business. GIS is a tool for managing business information of any type in terms of its spatial location. The business applications of this technology are diverse. The main tasks solved with its help can be grouped by answers to basic questions: “Where?”, “Who (or What)?” And How?”. You will be able to: trace where your clients live, who they are, what their needs and financial capabilities are; determine the location of stores – yours and your competitors; learn how to more accurately direct marketing activity and how to get the most out of it, how to optimize sales areas and simulate the consequences of decisions; choose a house to buy and determine the shortest route to the desired location.
GIS answers these questions with greater efficiency and certainty than any other information technology, integrating a wide range of data stored in spreadsheets and other types of documents in one convenient and easy-to-understand format – a map. With the help of GIS, you can get the most visual representation of this data.
You can highlight the most interesting data for you by changing the icons of the corresponding symbols, their color and their meanings in the database tables. You can create and place on the map or next to it explanatory diagrams, graphs, tables, drawings and pictures. You can jointly display different types of data in one geographic space, or extract from the database and display on the map data related to a specific thematic task. And finally, by displaying the desired data on a map or multiple maps, conduct a full analysis of them. GIS allows you to create and modify maps on the fly, instantly navigate from a feature or map layer to the corresponding row or table in the database, and from a record in the database to its associated feature on the map.
GIS allows you to create mapping and presentation maps simply by pointing and clicking. GIS allows you to display and analyze business information in new ways, to reveal previously hidden relationships, examples and trends. GIS can change the way you work.
Today’s business people have to deal with huge amounts of information about sales, customers, partners and competitors, demographics of residents, mailing lists and much more. This information is based on geographic location: address, postal code, service area border, product distribution area, delivery route. All this information can be displayed on a map and can be manipulated interactively.